In the UK, job offers, training or progression opportunities can rely on opaque, informal processes to which minorities do not have access.
This is according to the March 2018 report (PDF) from the European Network Against Racism (ENAR).
This report is an update of their 2012-2013 Shadow Report, Racism and Discrimination in Employment in Europe, published in 2014.
It takes an intersectional approach to racism in the labour market and draws on knowledge gathered by NGOs.
Key findings of the report include:
- In Belgium, job applicants with foreign sounding names have 30% less chances of being invited to a job interview compared to applicants with a similar profile but Flemish sounding names
- In Denmark, immigrants and ethnic minorities in employment are overrepresented in sectors such as trade, transport, hotels and restaurants and the service sector
- In Spain, 28% of migrant women hold a university degree, compared to 28.3% of Spanish women, but they are still overrepresented in low-skilled jobs
- In the Czech Republic, Italy and Greece, informal work has developed as a consequence of the financial crisis and migration. As a result, the most vulnerable migrants can be victims of exploitative, inhuman working conditions, and exposed to violent accidents, unpaid wages and many other forms of mistreatment.